Vanodzima moto vanoshandisa aqueous Firimu-inogadzira furo (AFFF) kubatsira kudzima moto unonetsa-kurwisa, kunyanya moto unosanganisira peturu kana zvimwe zvinonwiwa zvinokasira - zvinozivikanwa semoto weClass B. Nekudaro, haazi ese mafuri anopisa moto anosarudzwa seAFFF.

Mamwe mafomu eAFFF ane kirasi yemakemikari anozivikanwa se perfluorochemicals (PFCs) uye izvi zvakamutsa kunetseka nezve mukana we kusvibiswa kwemvura yepasi masosi kubva mukushandiswa kwevamiriri veAFFF vane maPFC.

Muna Chivabvu 2000, iyo 3M Kambani yakati haichazogadziri PFOS (perfluorooctanesulphonate) -based flurosurfactants vachishandisa iyo electrochemical flouorination maitiro. Izvi zvisati zvaitika, akajairika PFCs anoshandiswa mumoto wekudzimisa moto aive PFOS uye zvigadzirwa zvayo.

AFFF inokurumidza kudzima moto wemafuta, asi iine PFAS, iyo inomiririra per- uye polyfluoroalkyl zvinhu. Kumwe kusvibiswa kwePFAS kunobva mukushandiswa kwemaputi ekudzimisa moto. (Mufananidzo / Joint Base San Antonio)

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Munguva yemakore mashoma apfuura, indasitiri yekudzimisa moto furo yakaenda kure nePFOS uye zvigadzirwa zvayo semhedzisiro yekumanikidza kwemutemo. Vaya vagadziri vakagadzira uye vakaunza kumusika mapfuti ekudzimisa moto asingashandisi fluorochemicals, ndiko kuti, ayo asina fluorine.

Vagadziri vemafuro asina fluorine vanoti mafuro aya ane pesvedzero shoma pane zvakatipoteredza uye vanosangana nemvumo dzekunze dzekudzima moto nezvinotarisirwa nevashandisi vekupedzisira. Kunyange zvakadaro, panoramba paine kunetsekana kwezvakatipoteredza pamusoro pekudzima moto furo uye kutsvagiswa kwenyaya kunoenderera.

KUSHUNGURUDZA PAMUSORO PAMUSHANDISWA WEMAFUMO

Nzvimbo dzekunetsekana dzakakomberedza zvinogona kukanganisa mamiriro ezve nharaunda kubva mukuburitswa kwemafuro mhinduro (musanganiswa wemvura uye fosi inogadzika). Idzo nyaya dzekutanga ndeye huturu, biodegradability, kushingirira, kurapwa munzvimbo dzekurapa mvura yakasviba uye kurimwa kwevhu. Zvese izvi zvikonzero zvekushushikana kana furo mhinduro dzasvika masisitimu emvura echisikigo kana epamba.

Kana PFC-iine AFFF ichishandiswa kakawanda munzvimbo imwechete kwenguva yakareba, maPFC anokwanisa kufamba kubva mufuro kuenda muvhu uyezve ndokuenda mumvura yepasi. Huwandu hwePFC hunopinda pasi pevhu hunoenderana nemhando uye huwandu hweAFFF yakashandiswa, kwayakashandiswa, mhando yevhu nezvimwe zvinhu.

Kana matsime ega ega kana eruzhinji akawanikwa padyo, anogona kukanganiswa nePFCs kubva kunzvimbo yakashandiswa AFFF. Heino tarisiro pane izvo Minnesota Dhipatimendi Rehutano rakaburitsa; iyo imwe yenyika dzinoverengeka kuyedza kusvibiswa.

"Muna 2008-2011, iyo Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) yakaedza ivhu, mvura yepadenga, mvura yepasi, uye masisitendi munzvimbo dziri pedyo ne13 dzeAFFF dzakatenderedza nyika. Vakaona mazinga epamusoro ePFCs pane mamwe masayiti, asi kazhinji kacho kusvibiswa hakuna kukanganisa nzvimbo hombe kana kuisa njodzi kuvanhu kana nharaunda. Nzvimbo nhatu - Duluth Air National Guard Base, Bemidji Airport, uye Western Area Fire Training Academy - zvakaonekwa uko maPFC anga apararira zvakakwana zvekuti Minnesota Dhipatimendi Rehutano neMPCA vafunga kuyedza matsime ekugara ari pedyo.

"Izvi zvinowanzoitika pedyo nenzvimbo idzo PFC ine AFFF yakashandiswa kakawanda, senzvimbo yekudzidzira moto, nhandare, nzvimbo dzekuchenesa, uye nzvimbo dzemakemikari. Izvo zvishoma zvingangoitika kubva kune imwechete-nguva yekushandisa kweAFFF kurwisa moto, kunze kwekunge mavhoriyamu makuru eAFFF achishandiswa. Kunyangwe vamwe vanodzimisa moto vanotakurika vangashandisa PFC ine AFFF, kushandisa imwe shoma yakadaro zvingangokanganisa mvura yepasi. ”

FOAM KUZIVISWA

Kuburitswa kwefuro / mhinduro yemvura ingangove iri mhedzisiro yeimwe kana dzakawanda dzezviitiko zvinotevera:

  • Chinyorwa chekudzimisa moto kana kuita-kuvhara mafuta;
  • Kurovedza kurovedza muviri uko furo riri kushandiswa muzviitiko;
  • Furo michina sisitimu uye bvunzo dzemotokari; kana
  • Fixed system kuburitswa.

Nzvimbo dzinogona kuitika kana chimwe kana zvimwe zvezviitiko izvi zvinosanganisira nzvimbo dzendege uye nzvimbo dzekudzidzira moto. Nzvimbo dzakasarudzika dzine njodzi, sedzinotsva / dzimba dzekuchengetera zvinhu zvine huni, nzvimbo dzinochengeterwa moto dzemvura zhinji pamwe nenzvimbo dzekuchengetera marara zvine njodzi.

Izvo zvinonyanya kudiwa kuunganidza furo mhinduro mushure mekushandisa kwayo kwekudzimisa moto. Kunze kwechinhu chekupupa pachayo, furo rinogona kunge rakashatiswa nemafuta kana mafuta anowanikwa mumoto. Chiitiko chenguva dzose chine ngozi chezvinhu chakaitika zvino.

Chinyorwa zvinyorwa zvine marongero anoshandiswa kudurura zvine njodzi mvura inofanirwa kushandiswa kana mamiriro nemvumo yevashandi. Izvi zvinosanganisira kuvhara migero yedutu kudzivirira iyo yakasviba furo / mhinduro yemvura kuti isapinda mune yakasviba system kana nharaunda isina kumakwa.

Maitiro ekudzivirira akadai sekumedza, kudhiza uye kutsausa anofanirwa kushandiswa kuwana furo / mhinduro yemvura kunzvimbo inokodzera kudzamara yagona kubviswa nenjodzi yekuchenesa kontrakta.

KUDZIDZISA NEMAFOAM

Kune akanyatsogadzirirwa mafomu ekudzidzira anowanikwa kubva kune vazhinji vanogadzira furo anotevedzera AFFF panguva yekudzidziswa mhenyu, asi haina varidzi vezvipenga senge PFC. Aya mafomu ekudzidzira anowanzo kuve anogadziriswa uye ane mashoma ezvemamiriro ekunze. ivo vanogona zvakare kutumirwa zvakachengeteka kunzvimbo yemuno yekurapa mvura yekuchenesa kugadzirisa.

Kushaikwa kwefourosurfactants mukudzidzira furo zvinoreva kuti iwo mafuro ane yakaderedzwa kupisa-musana kuramba. Semuenzaniso, furo yekudzidzira inozopa chekutanga mhute chipingamupinyi mumoto unopisa zvinokonzeresa kudzima, asi iro gumbeze remupengo richakurumidza kuparara.

Icho chinhu chakanaka kubva pamaonero emudzidzisi sezvo zvichireva kuti iwe unogona kuitisa zvimwe zviitiko zvekudzidzisa nekuti iwe nevadzidzi vako hamusi kumirira iyo yekudzidzira simulator kuti ive inopisa yakagadzirira zvakare.

Kurovedza kurovedza muviri, kunyanya avo vanoshandisa chaiyo furo yakapera, inofanirwa kusanganisira zvigadzirwa zvekuunganidzwa kwekupedza furo. Pakuderera, zvivakwa zvekudzidzira moto zvinofanirwa kuve nekwanisi yekuunganidza iyo furo mhinduro inoshandiswa mukudzidzira zviitiko zvekuburitsa kunzvimbo yekuchenesa mvura yakasviba.

Asati aburitswa ipapo, nzvimbo yekuchenesa mvura yakasviba inofanira kuziviswa uye kupihwa mvumo kubazi remoto kuti mumiriri aburitswe pamwero wakatemerwa.

Chokwadi izvo zvinoitika mune induction masisitimu eClass A furo (uye pamwe mumiriri kemesitiri) zvicharamba zvichienderera mberi sezvazvakaita mumakore gumi apfuura. Asi kana zviri zveClass B furo rinotarisisa, mumiririri kemesitiri ekuvandudza mabasa anoita kunge akaomeswa nechando nekuvimba netekinoroji iripo.

Kubvira pakatangwa zvemitemo yezvakatipoteredza mumakore gumi apfuura kana zvakadaro pane fluorine-based AFFFs vane vagadziri vemaputi vanopisa moto vakatora dambudziko rekusimudzira zvakanyanya. Zvimwe zveizvi zvigadzirwa zvisina fluorine chizvarwa chekutanga uye zvimwe yechipiri kana chechitatu chizvarwa.

Vachaenderera mberi vachichinja mune ese ejenti chemistry uye yekudzimisa moto basa nechinangwa chekuzadzikisa kuita kwepamusoro pazvinhu zvinobvira uye zvinopisa zvinwiwa, kunatsiridza kupisa-kudzora kuramba kwekuchengetedza murwi wemoto uye nekupa mamwe akawanda makore ehusherufu hupenyu pamusoro pemafuru anobva mupuroteni. 


Post nguva: Aug-27-2020